Mark Ring

Mark Ring

Position: Backs Coach

Date Of Birth 15/10/1962 (54)
Place Of Birth Cardiff
Height 183cm / 6'
Weight 79kg / 12st 6lbs
Sponsor Sponsor Me
Clubs: - West Hartlepool - Old Crescent - Caerphilly - Cardiff - Cross Keys -
Region: - Newport Gwent Dragons - Dragons Academy -
Clubs: - West Hartlepool - Cardiff - Pontypool -
Education: - Lady Mary High School, Cardiff -
Invitational: - Barbarians - World XV -
Honours: - Wales - Wales B - Wales Youth -
Playing Summary
  Season P W D L Try Con Pen DG PTS  
  1980/1981 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  
  1981/1982 12 10 0 2 3 6 5 1 42  
  1982/1983 32 20 1 11 14 14 9 2 117  
  1983/1984 31 22 0 9 17 19 9 0 133  
  1984/1985 30 26 2 2 18 2 1 1 82  
  1985/1986 9 6 1 2 2 0 0 0 8  
  1986/1987 29 20 0 9 15 2 3 0 73  
  1988/1989 20 11 1 8 4 4 3 3 42  
  1989/1990 28 15 1 12 5 22 10 2 100  
  1990/1991 26 17 0 9 12 0 0 1 51  
  1991/1992 5 3 0 2 0 0 2 0 6  
  1992/1993 11 10 0 1 0 0 0 1 3  
  1994/1995 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  1995/1996 16 13 1 2 4 0 0 0 20  
  Total 253 176 7 70 94 69 42 11 677  

Click on a season for a match by match breakdown.

  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  30/04/1981 Cote Basque Rep 0 0 0 0 0 L 6 - 26  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  02/09/1981 Glamorgan Wanderers FH 0 0 1 0 3 W 9 - 3  
  17/10/1981 Bath Rugby FB 0 2 0 0 4 W 32 - 3  
  11/11/1981 Oxford University FH 2 1 0 0 10 W 38 - 9  
  06/01/1982 Aberavon CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 12 - 6  
  22/01/1982 Bective Rangers CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 23 - 12  
  30/01/1982 Waterloo FH 0 3 2 0 12 W 40 - 9  
  06/03/1982 London Welsh FH 0 0 0 1 3 W 20 - 13  
  19/03/1982 Heriot's FP FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 38 - 11  
  03/04/1982 Bedford Blues FH 0 0 2 0 6 W 13 - 10  
  17/04/1982 Neath FH 1 0 0 0 4 W 4 - 3  
  05/05/1982 Pretoria Defence Rep 0 0 0 0 0 L 22 - 27  
  08/05/1982 Pretoria University CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 17 - 18  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  04/09/1982 Munster FH 0 0 0 0 0 L 6 - 22  
  11/09/1982 Neath FH 1 0 0 0 4 W 16 - 9  
  29/09/1982 Pontypridd FH 1 1 1 0 9 L 9 - 15  
  02/10/1982 Newport FH 0 0 0 1 3 W 13 - 3  
  06/10/1982 Bridgend Ravens FH 0 0 0 0 0 L 16 - 21  
  13/10/1982 Maesteg FH 1 0 0 0 4 L 24 - 31  
  02/11/1982 Ebbw Vale FH 0 0 2 0 6 L 10 - 12  
  06/11/1982 Leicester Tigers CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 32 - 9  
  20/11/1982 Cilfynydd CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 66 - 7  
  27/11/1982 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 24 - 13  
  04/12/1982 Swansea CE 0 0 0 1 3 L 13 - 18  
  11/12/1982 London Welsh CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 38 - 12  
  18/12/1982 Gowerton CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 70 - 6  
  22/12/1982 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 29 - 6  
  27/12/1982 Pontypridd CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 56 - 3  
  01/01/1983 Moseley CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 31 - 19  
  08/01/1983 Aberavon CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 20 - 10  
  22/01/1983 Blackwood CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 21 - 6  
  29/01/1983 Scarlets FH 0 0 0 0 0 L 15 - 16  
  12/02/1983 Bristol Rugby CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 16 - 3  
  18/02/1983 Heriot's FP FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 13 - 12  
  04/03/1983 Bective Rangers CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 6  
  12/03/1983 Pontypool CE 0 0 2 0 6 L 14 - 24  
  26/03/1983 Newport CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 8 - 13  
  02/04/1983 Barbarians CE 0 0 0 0 0 D 32 - 32  
  04/04/1983 Harlequins CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 6 - 34  
  09/04/1983 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 30 - 12  
  16/04/1983 Neath FH 1 3 1 0 13 W 39 - 24  
  23/04/1983 Bath Rugby CE 0 1 1 0 5 L 9 - 28  
  28/04/1983 Brixham CE 2 1 1 0 13 W 25 - 12  
  29/04/1983 St Ives CE 1 4 1 0 15 W 41 - 25  
  30/04/1983 Penzance & Newlyn CE 1 4 0 0 12 W 60 - 7  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  01/09/1983 Abertillery FH 0 0 1 0 3 L 3 - 9  
  03/09/1983 East District CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 56 - 4  
  01/10/1983 Newport CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 21 - 32  
  29/10/1983 Moseley CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 43 - 10  
  05/11/1983 Leicester Tigers CE 1 1 2 0 12 L 24 - 29  
  09/11/1983 Oxford University CE 2 6 1 0 23 W 47 - 25  
  12/11/1983 Ebbw Vale CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 31 - 16  
  19/11/1983 Senghenydd CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 43 - 3  
  26/11/1983 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 13 - 14  
  03/12/1983 Swansea CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 26 - 13  
  10/12/1983 London Welsh CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 43 - 20  
  17/12/1983 Treorchy CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 31 - 4  
  24/12/1983 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 10 - 34  
  26/12/1983 Pontypridd CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 21 - 14  
  31/12/1983 Coventry CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 46 - 10  
  07/01/1984 Moseley CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 25 - 20  
  14/01/1984 Aberavon CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 27 - 17  
  28/01/1984 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 12 - 7  
  11/02/1984 Bristol Rugby CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 23 - 16  
  15/02/1984 Newbridge CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 17 - 9  
  25/02/1984 Newbridge CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 29 - 9  
  03/03/1984 Ebbw Vale CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 61 - 18  
  10/03/1984 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 11 - 16  
  17/03/1984 London Welsh CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 10 - 21  
  24/03/1984 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 26 - 6  
  31/03/1984 Scarlets FH 0 3 2 0 12 W 28 - 17  
  06/04/1984 Bedford Blues CE 0 8 0 0 16 W 48 - 4  
  14/04/1984 Swansea FH 0 0 2 0 6 L 14 - 15  
  21/04/1984 Barbarians CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 52 - 16  
  28/04/1984 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 24 - 19  
  30/04/1984 Neath FH 0 1 1 0 5 L 17 - 21  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  29/07/1984 Bangkok National XV Rep 1 0 0 0 4 W 60 - 28  
  02/08/1984 Royal Bangkok Sports Club CE 3 0 0 0 12 W 88 - 3  
  01/09/1984 East District CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 54 - 6  
  08/09/1984 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 12 - 13  
  12/09/1984 Bristol Rugby CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 30 - 26  
  19/09/1984 Penarth CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 64 - 3  
  22/09/1984 Aberavon CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 23 - 19  
  26/09/1984 Pontypridd CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 28 - 15  
  29/09/1984 Garryowen CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 13 - 6  
  06/10/1984 Newport CE 3 0 0 0 12 W 37 - 3  
  17/10/1984 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 D 9 - 9  
  24/10/1984 Australia CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 12  
  27/10/1984 Harlequins CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 25 - 15  
  03/11/1984 Leicester Tigers CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 47 - 21  
  17/11/1984 Tonyrefail CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 22 - 9  
  28/11/1984 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 24 - 6  
  01/12/1984 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 D 13 - 13  
  19/12/1984 Bryncoch CE 1 0 0 1 7 W 21 - 0  
  22/12/1984 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 34 - 13  
  26/12/1984 Pontypridd CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 44 - 12  
  29/12/1984 Coventry CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 12 - 6  
  01/01/1985 Crawshays CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 29 - 24  
  12/01/1985 Aberavon CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 45 - 12  
  26/01/1985 Newbridge CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 24 - 6  
  23/02/1985 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 21 - 12  
  09/03/1985 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 6 - 24  
  23/03/1985 Pontypool CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 24 - 3  
  06/04/1985 Barbarians CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 44 - 20  
  10/04/1985 South Wales Police CE 0 2 1 0 7 W 15 - 0  
  13/04/1985 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 42 - 16  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  05/04/1986 Bedford Blues CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 68 - 28  
  12/04/1986 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 10 - 25  
  19/04/1986 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 12 - 22  
  26/04/1986 Newport CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 28 - 21  
  30/04/1986 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 27 - 19  
  21/05/1986 Crimson Tide Rep 0 0 0 0 0 W 28 - 19  
  24/05/1986 James Bay CE 0 0 0 0 0 D 18 - 18  
  28/05/1986 British Columbia CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 24 - 16  
  31/05/1986 Alberta WI 1 0 0 0 4 W 29 - 9  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  03/09/1986 Glamorgan Wanderers CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 22 - 13  
  06/09/1986 East District CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 30 - 9  
  10/09/1986 Bristol Rugby CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 14 - 27  
  13/09/1986 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 7 - 24  
  20/09/1986 Coventry CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 22 - 4  
  24/09/1986 Pontypridd CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 39 - 12  
  27/09/1986 Aberavon CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 22 - 26  
  04/10/1986 Newport CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 28 - 19  
  08/10/1986 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 2 0 0 4 L 18 - 29  
  11/10/1986 Northampton Saints CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 35 - 4  
  18/10/1986 Wasps CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 16 - 25  
  22/10/1986 Pontypool FH 1 0 1 0 7 W 17 - 13  
  29/10/1986 Bath Rugby CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 9 - 28  
  05/11/1986 Oxford University FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 35 - 24  
  15/11/1986 Treorchy CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 14 - 7  
  29/11/1986 Bangor CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 21 - 14  
  20/12/1986 Cross Keys CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 19 - 6  
  03/01/1987 Moseley CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 38 - 13  
  10/01/1987 Aberavon CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 20 - 12  
  04/02/1987 Maesteg CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 24 - 30  
  14/02/1987 Sale Sharks CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 44 - 14  
  21/02/1987 Ebbw Vale CE 0 0 2 0 6 L 10 - 19  
  28/02/1987 Newport CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 15 - 12  
  06/03/1987 London Welsh CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 43 - 0  
  14/03/1987 Pontypool FB 0 0 0 0 0 L 15 - 27  
  18/03/1987 Penarth CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 37 - 24  
  28/03/1987 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 6  
  18/04/1987 Barbarians CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 33 - 24  
  02/05/1987 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 15  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  07/09/1988 Glamorgan Wanderers CE 1 2 0 0 8 W 36 - 18  
  10/09/1988 Neath FH 0 1 0 0 2 L 10 - 49  
  13/09/1988 British Columbia CE 0 1 1 0 5 D 25 - 25  
  17/09/1988 Coventry CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 17 - 10  
  24/09/1988 Aberavon CE 1 0 0 1 7 W 20 - 9  
  01/10/1988 Newport CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 36 - 10  
  05/10/1988 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 2 0 6 L 6 - 28  
  05/11/1988 Leicester Tigers CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 26 - 24  
  09/11/1988 Oxford University FH 0 0 0 0 0 L 6 - 20  
  12/11/1988 Ebbw Vale CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 19 - 24  
  19/11/1988 Pyle CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 25 - 9  
  03/12/1988 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 0 - 9  
  10/12/1988 London Welsh CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 28 - 14  
  17/12/1988 Amman United CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 54 - 0  
  24/12/1988 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 14 - 4  
  26/12/1988 Pontypridd CE 0 0 0 1 3 L 6 - 41  
  17/03/1989 London Welsh CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 42 - 6  
  25/03/1989 Barbarians CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 24 - 21  
  01/04/1989 Nottingham CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 12 - 18  
  08/04/1989 Neath CE 0 0 0 1 3 L 12 - 19  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  06/09/1989 Glamorgan Wanderers CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 31 - 10  
  09/09/1989 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 13 - 36  
  15/09/1989 Coventry CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 10  
  27/09/1989 Pontypridd CE 0 0 1 0 3 L 15 - 27  
  07/10/1989 Newport CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 29 - 16  
  14/10/1989 New Zealand CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 15 - 25  
  25/10/1989 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 21 - 13  
  28/10/1989 Cambridge University CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 17 - 28  
  08/11/1989 Oxford University CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 18 - 3  
  11/11/1989 Ebbw Vale CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 56 - 13  
  18/11/1989 Cilfynydd CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 26 - 13  
  25/11/1989 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 12 - 37  
  02/12/1989 Swansea CE 0 1 0 0 2 L 27 - 29  
  09/12/1989 London Welsh CE 1 6 0 0 16 W 60 - 14  
  16/12/1989 Bridgend Athletic CE 1 4 2 0 18 W 38 - 16  
  23/12/1989 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 10 - 21  
  26/12/1989 Pontypridd CE 1 2 3 0 17 W 27 - 6  
  27/01/1990 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 15 - 4  
  10/02/1990 Llandovery CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 52 - 13  
  24/02/1990 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 6 - 22  
  10/03/1990 Pontypool FH 0 0 0 1 3 D 25 - 25  
  14/03/1990 Newport FH 0 0 0 0 0 L 9 - 15  
  17/03/1990 Swansea FH 0 1 1 1 8 L 26 - 34  
  31/03/1990 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 17 - 27  
  07/04/1990 Nottingham FH 0 6 1 0 15 W 47 - 18  
  11/04/1990 Ebbw Vale FH 0 1 1 0 5 L 13 - 20  
  14/04/1990 Barbarians CE 0 1 1 0 5 W 22 - 13  
  28/04/1990 Newbridge CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 25 - 9  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  17/08/1990 Diok CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 73 - 3  
  19/08/1990 CSA Steaua Bucuresti FB 0 0 0 0 0 W 17 - 14  
  08/09/1990 Leicester Tigers CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 35 - 9  
  15/09/1990 Bath Rugby CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 23 - 45  
  22/09/1990 Swansea CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 28 - 13  
  29/09/1990 Newbridge CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 0 - 11  
  13/10/1990 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 9 - 10  
  27/10/1990 Abertillery CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 55 - 12  
  03/11/1990 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 16 - 22  
  10/11/1990 Glamorgan Wanderers CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 27 - 13  
  24/11/1990 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 22 - 12  
  01/12/1990 Aberavon CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 30 - 12  
  08/12/1990 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 3 - 24  
  15/12/1990 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 15 - 23  
  22/12/1990 Newbridge CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 9 - 18  
  26/12/1990 Pontypridd FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 14 - 6  
  29/12/1990 Harlequins FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 9 - 0  
  05/01/1991 Ebbw Vale CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 19 - 7  
  23/02/1991 Blackwood CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 58 - 3  
  09/03/1991 Abertillery CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 34 - 6  
  16/03/1991 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 13 - 16  
  23/03/1991 Scarlets CE 2 0 0 0 8 W 43 - 0  
  26/03/1991 Pontypridd CE 1 0 0 0 4 W 25 - 7  
  30/03/1991 Barbarians CE 1 0 0 0 4 L 25 - 42  
  13/04/1991 Glamorgan Wanderers CE 3 0 0 0 12 W 42 - 15  
  27/04/1991 Neath FH 0 0 0 1 3 W 18 - 4  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  22/02/1992 Newport Rep 0 0 0 0 0 L 4 - 12  
  29/02/1992 Bridgend Ravens FH 0 0 2 0 6 L 14 - 18  
  21/04/1992 Newport CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 18 - 13  
  25/04/1992 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 23 - 16  
  02/05/1992 Ebbw Vale CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 31 - 8  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  12/09/1992 Pontypridd CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 37 - 3  
  19/09/1992 Newbridge CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 39 - 14  
  26/09/1992 Maesteg CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 21 - 11  
  03/10/1992 South Wales Police CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 65 - 8  
  10/10/1992 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 16 - 20  
  17/10/1992 Neath CE 0 0 0 1 3 W 31 - 20  
  24/10/1992 Pontypool CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 31 - 24  
  31/10/1992 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 39 - 7  
  14/11/1992 Newbridge FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 24 - 12  
  05/12/1992 Swansea CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 8 - 6  
  12/12/1992 Aberavon CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 46 - 12  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  17/02/1995 London Welsh Rep 0 0 0 0 0 W 34 - 0  
  17/03/1995 Bath Rugby Rep 0 0 0 0 0 W 34 - 24  
  15/04/1995 Barbarians Rep 0 0 0 0 0 W 75 - 33  
  Date Opponent Position Try Con Pen DG Pts   Result  
  02/09/1995 Bridgend Ravens CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 36 - 28  
  09/09/1995 Pontypridd CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 36 - 31  
  16/09/1995 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 11 - 8  
  23/09/1995 Swansea CE 1 0 0 0 5 W 50 - 13  
  30/09/1995 Scarlets CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 12  
  07/10/1995 Treorchy CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 67 - 3  
  14/10/1995 Ebbw Vale CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 16 - 10  
  21/10/1995 Abertillery CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 60 - 19  
  28/10/1995 Fiji CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 22 - 21  
  04/11/1995 Aberavon CE 3 0 0 0 15 W 57 - 9  
  21/11/1995 Union Bordeaux-Begles CE 0 0 0 0 0 D 14 - 14  
  25/11/1995 Newport FH 0 0 0 0 0 L 18 - 22  
  16/12/1995 Oakdale FH 0 0 0 0 0 W 26 - 7  
  23/12/1995 Neath CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 28 - 8  
  30/12/1995 Leinster CE 0 0 0 0 0 W 23 - 14  
  07/01/1996 Stade Toulousain CE 0 0 0 0 0 L 18 - 21  
  Team P W D L Try Con Pen DG PTS  
  Wales 32 11 2 19 1 3 8 0 34  

Latest News

  • National 7s

    27/05/2017

    Cardiff lose out in the plate competition

  • National 7s

    26/05/2017

    Squad news

  • Old Pen 7s

    20/05/2017

    Cardiff go out in the second round

  • Old Pens 7s

    17/05/2017

    Cardiff enter the Old Penarthian 7s on Saturday (20th May)

  • New Head Coach

    15/05/2017

    New coaching set up for 2017 / 18